Serenissima Repubblica di San Marinois an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italysituated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.
With Italian being the official language along with strong financial connections, San Marino has strong ties to its much larger neighbour and is located close to the riviera of Riminione of Italy's main coastal resort areas.
The country takes its name from Marinusa stonemason originating from the Roman colony on the island of Rabin modern-day Croatia. In AD[ clarification needed ] Marinus, according to legend, participated in the reconstruction of Rimini 's city walls after their destruction by Liburnian pirates.
Endre adresse i folkeregisteret online dating Marinus then went on to found an independent monastic community Monte Titano in AD ; thus, San Marino lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.
The country is considered to have the earliest written governing documents, or constitution, still in effect. The country's economy mainly relies on financeindustryservices and tourism. It is among one of the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capitawith a figure comparable to the most developed European regions. San Marino is considered to have a highly stable economy, with one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, no national debt and a budget surplus.
Saint Marinus left the island of Rab in present-day Croatia with his lifelong friend Leo, and went to the city of Rimini as a stonemason. After the Diocletianic Persecution following his Christian sermons, he escaped to the nearby Monte Titanowhere he built a small church and thus founded what is now the city and state of San Marino, which is sometimes still called the "Titanic Republic".
The official date of the founding of what is now known as the Republic is 3 September Inits independence was recognized by the Papacy. The advance of Napoleon 's army in presented a brief threat to the independence of San Marino, but the country was saved from losing its liberty thanks to one of its Regents, Antonio Onofriwho managed to gain the respect and friendship of Napoleon.
Thanks to his intervention, Napoleon, in a letter delivered to Gaspard Mongescientist and commissary of the French Government for Science and Art, promised to guarantee and protect the independence of the Republic, even offering to extend its territory according to its needs.
The offer was declined by the Regents, fearing future retaliation from other states' revanchism. During the later phase of the Italian unification process in the 19th century, San Marino served as a refuge for many people persecuted because of their support for unification.
In recognition of this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi accepted the wish of San Marino not to be incorporated into the new Italian state. He wrote in reply, saying that the republic proved that "government founded on republican principles is capable of being so administered as to be secure and enduring.
During World War Iwhen Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 MaySan Marino remained neutral and Italy adopted a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspecting that San Marino could harbour Austrian spies who could be given access to its new radiotelegraph station.
Italy tried to forcibly establish a detachment of Carabinieri in the republic and then cut the republic's telephone lines when it did not comply. Two groups of ten volunteers joined Italian forces in the fighting on the Italian frontthe first as combatants and the second as a medical corps operating a Red Cross field hospital.
The existence of this hospital later caused Austria-Hungary to suspend diplomatic relations with San Marino. Three Endre adresse i folkeregisteret online dating after the fall of Benito Mussolini in Italy, PFS rule collapsed and the new government declared neutrality in the conflict.
The "Endre adresse i folkeregisteret online dating" regained power on 1 April but kept neutrality intact. Despite that, on 26 JuneSan Marino was bombed by the Royal Air Forcein the belief that San Marino had been overrun by German forces and was being used to amass stores and ammunition. The Sammarinese government declared on the same day that no military installations or equipment were located on its territory, and that no belligerent forces had been allowed to enter.
San Marino had the world's first democratically elected communist government — a coalition between the Sammarinese Communist Party and the Sammarinese Socialist Partywhich held office between and It is neither a member of the European Unionnor of the Eurozone although it uses the euro as its currency.
Its hilly topography, with no flat ground, is part of the Apennine mountain range. The highest point in the country, the summit of Monte Titanois m 2, ft above sea level. There are no bodies of water of any significant size. San Marino is the third smallest country in Europewith only Vatican City and Monaco being smaller.
It is also the fifth smallest country in the world.
The climate is Mediterranean with continental influences, having warm summers and cool winters that are typical of inland areas of the central Italian peninsula. San Marino has the political framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic: Executive power is exercised by the government.
Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Grand and General Council. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
San Marino was originally led
Endre adresse i folkeregisteret online dating the Arengoinitially formed from the heads of each family. In the 13th century, power was given to the Grand and General Council. Inthe first two Captains Regent were nominated by the Council.
As of [update]this method of nomination is still in use. The legislature of the republic is the Grand and General Council Consiglio grande e generale.
The Council is a unicameral legislature with 60 members. There are elections every five years by proportional representation in all nine administrative districts. These districts townships correspond to the old parishes of the republic.
Citizens 18 years or older are eligible to vote. Beside general legislation, the Grand and General Council approves the budget and elects the Captains Regent, the State Congress composed of ten Secretaries with executive powerthe Council of Twelve which forms the judicial branch during the period of legislature of the Councilthe Advising Commissions, and the Government Unions. The council also has the power to ratify treaties with other countries. The council is divided into five different Advising Commissions consisting of fifteen councillors who examine, propose, and Endre adresse i folkeregisteret online dating the implementation of new laws that are on their way to being presented on the floor of the council.
Every six months, the council elects two Captains Regent to be the heads of state.