Alcoholics Anonymous AA is an international mutual aid fellowship  whose stated purpose is to enable its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety. AA's initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from "outside issues" and influences. The Traditions recommend that members remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics, and that AA groups avoid official affiliations with other organizations.
They also advise against dogma and coercive hierarchies. Subsequent fellowships such as Narcotics Anonymous have adopted and adapted the Twelve Steps and the Twelve Traditions to their respective primary purposes.
AA sprang from The Oxford Groupa non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity. Feeling a "kinship of common suffering" and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering. Within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B.
Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he ever drank.
Under the care of William Duncan Silkworth an early benefactor of AAWilson's detox included the deliriant belladonna. Wilson's early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on "the science" of treating alcoholism. Wilson's first success came during a business trip to Akron, Ohio, where he was introduced to Robert Smith, a surgeon and Oxford Group member who was unable to stay sober.
After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on 10 Junethe date marked by AA for its anniversaries. While Wilson and Smith credited their sobriety to working with alcoholics under the auspices of the Oxford Group, a Group associate pastor sermonized against Wilson and his alcoholic Groupers for Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating a "secret, ashamed sub-group" engaged in "divergent works".
AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split: Men [no women were members yet] who had proven over and over again, by extremely painful experience, that they could not get sober on their own had somehow become more powerful when two or three of them worked on their common problem.
This, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves. They did not need the Oxford Group. And just as importantly, we learned from them what not to do. AA's tradition of anonymity was a reaction to the publicity-seeking practices of the Oxford Group, as well as AA's wish to not promote, Wilson said, "erratic public characters who through broken anonymity might get drunk and destroy confidence in us.
To share their method, Wilson and other members wrote the initially-titled book, Alcoholics Anonymous: Informally known as "The Big Book" with its first pages virtually unchanged since the editionit suggests a twelve-step program in which members admit that they are powerless over alcohol and need help from a "higher power". They seek guidance and strength through prayer and meditation from God or a Higher Power of "Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating" own understanding; take a moral inventory with care to include resentments; list and become ready to remove character defects; list and make amends to those harmed; continue to take a moral inventory, pray, meditate, and try to help other alcoholics recover.
The second half of the book, "Personal Stories" subject to additions, removal
Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating retitling in subsequent editionsis made of AA members' redemptive autobiographical sketches.
Ininterviews on American radio and favorable articles in US magazines, including a piece by Jack Alexander in The Saturday Evening Postled to increased book sales and membership.
Eventually he gained formal adoption and inclusion of the Twelve Traditions in all future editions of the Big Book. AA says it is "not organized in Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating formal or political sense",  and Bill Wilson called it a "benign anarchy ". InAA counted 1, members andAA groups worldwide.
A member who accepts a service position or an organizing role is a "trusted servant" with terms rotating and limited, typically lasting three months to two years and determined by group vote and the nature of the position.
Each group is a self-governing entity with AA World Services acting only in an advisory capacity. AA is served entirely by alcoholics, except for seven "nonalcoholic friends of the fellowship" of the member AA Board of Trustees.
AA groups are self-supporting, relying on voluntary donations from members to cover expenses.
Like individual groups, the GSO is self-supporting. It does not accept donations from people or organizations outside of AA. In keeping with AA's Eighth Tradition, the Central Office employs special workers who are compensated financially for their services, but their services do not include traditional "12th Step" work of working with alcoholics in need.
It also maintains service centers, which coordinate activities such as printing literature, responding to public inquiries, and organizing conferences.
AA's program extends beyond abstaining from alcohol. The sponsor should preferably have experience of all twelve of the steps, be the same sex as the sponsored person, and refrain from imposing personal views on the sponsored person. AA's program is an inheritor of Counter-Enlightenment philosophy. AA shares the view that acceptance of one's inherent limitations is critical to finding one's proper place among other humans and God.
Such ideas are described as "Counter-Enlightenment" because they are contrary to the Enlightenment 's ideal that humans have the capacity to make their lives and societies a heaven on earth using their own power and reason.
Rudy and Arthur L. Greil found that for an AA member to remain sober a high level of commitment is necessary. This commitment is facilitated by a change in the member's worldview. To help members stay sober AA must, they argue, provide an all-encompassing worldview while creating and sustaining an atmosphere of transcendence in the organization.
To be all-encompassing AA's ideology places an emphasis on tolerance "Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating" than on a narrow religious worldview that could make the organization unpalatable to potential members and thereby limit its effectiveness. AA's emphasis on the spiritual nature of its program, however, is necessary to institutionalize a feeling of transcendence. A tension results from the risk that the necessity of transcendence, if taken too literally, would compromise AA's efforts to maintain a broad appeal.
As this tension is an integral part of AA, Rudy and Greil argue that AA is best described as a quasi-religious organization. AA meetings are "quasi-ritualized therapeutic sessions run by and for, alcoholics". Local AA directories list a variety of weekly meetings. Those listed as Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating are available to those with a self professed "desire to stop drinking," which cannot be challenged by another member on any grounds.
Some meetings are devoted to studying and discussing the AA literature. AA meetings do not exclude other alcoholics, though some meetings cater to specific demographics such as genderprofession, age, sexual orientation  or culture.
US courts have not extended the status of privileged communicationsuch as that enjoyed by clergy and lawyers, to AA related communications between members.
A study found an association between an increase in attendance to AA meetings with increased spirituality and a decrease in the frequency and intensity of alcohol use. The research also found that AA was effective at helping agnostics and atheists become sober. The authors concluded that though spirituality was an important mechanism of behavioral change
Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating some alcoholics, it was not the only effective mechanism.
More informally than not, AA's membership has helped popularize the disease concept of alcoholism, though AA officially has had no part in the development of such postulates which had appeared as early as the late eighteenth century. Though cautious regarding the medical nature of alcoholism, AA has let others voice opinions. The Big Book states that alcoholism "is an illness which only a spiritual experience will conquer.
As laymen, our opinion as to its soundness may, of course, mean little. But as ex-problem drinkers, we can say that his explanation makes good sense. It explains many things for which we cannot otherwise account. "Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating" AAs have never called alcoholism a disease because, technically speaking, it is not a disease entity.
For example, there is no such thing as heart disease. Instead there are many separate heart ailments or combinations of them. It is something like that with alcoholism. Therefore, we did not wish to get in wrong with the medical profession by pronouncing alcoholism a disease entity. Hence, we have always called it an illness or a malady—a far safer term for us to use. Nevertheless the medical and scientific communities now join with AA's s disease hypothesis and use scientific criteria to confirm that alcoholism is an "addictive disease" aka Alcohol Use Disorder, Severe, Moderate, or Mild .
The ten criteria are: People taking the survey were allowed to select multiple answers for what motivated them to join AA. Studies of AA's efficacy have produced inconsistent results.
While some studies have suggested an association between AA attendance and increased abstinence or other positive outcomes,      other studies have not. The Surgeon General of the United "Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating" Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health states "Well-supported scientific evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of twelve-step mutual aid groups focused on alcohol and twelve-step facilitation interventions.
Many AA meetings take place in treatment facilities. Carrying the message of AA into hospitals was how the co-founders of AA first remained sober.
They discovered great value of working with alcoholics who are still suffering, and that even if the alcoholic they were working with did not stay sober, they did.
Thomas Hospital in Akron, Ohio, Smith worked with still more alcoholics. Service to corrections and treatment facilities used to be combined Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating the General Service Conference, invoted to dissolve its Institutions Committee and form two separate committees, one for treatment facilities, and one for correctional facilities.
The AA General Service Office has published a workbook with detailed recommendations for methods of approaching correctional-facility officials with the intent of developing an in-prison AA program.
United States courts have ruled that inmates, parolees, and probationers cannot be ordered to attend AA. Though AA itself was not deemed a religion, it was ruled that it contained enough religious components variously described in Griffin v.
Coughlin below as, inter alia, "religion", "religious activity", "religious exercise" to make coerced attendance at AA meetings a violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the constitution.
Court of Appeals stated that a parolee who was ordered to attend AA had standing to sue his parole office. Sister Francis who owned the farm tried to gift the spiritual retreat for alcoholics to Alcoholics Anonymous, however citing the sixth tradition Bill W.
High Watch was the first and therefore the oldest 12 step based treatment center in the world still operating today. Inthe Hazelden treatment center was founded and staffed by AA members, and since then many alcoholic rehabilitation clinics have incorporated AA's precepts into
Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating treatment programs. Less than half were likely to recommend "Serenity stones for recovering alcoholics dating" groups to their clients.
Providers with nursing qualifications were more likely to make such referrals than those without them. A statistically significant correlation was found between providers' self-reported level of spirituality and their likelihood of recommending AA or NA. This has also happened with new male members who received guidance from older female AA members, in pursuit of sexual company.
The authors suggest that both men and women need to be prepared for this behavior or find Male only or female-only groups. Stanton Peele argued that some AA groups apply the disease model to all problem drinkers, whether or not they are "full-blown" alcoholics. The Big Book suggests no program for these drinkers, but instead seeks to help drinkers without "power of choice in drink. One review of AA warned of detrimental iatrogenic effects of twelve-step philosophy and concluded that AA uses many methods that are also used by cults.