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Story, Excavation and Reconstruction Edge of Empire. A group for the Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption of iberian seafaring — Filipe Vieira de Castro 7 2. The spanish navy and the ordenanzas of, and — Blanca Rodriguez Mendoza 79 6. Spanish shipbuilding in the eighteenth century: Bradshaw Coombes Nautical astrolabes — Gustavo Garcia Design of a computer-based frame to store, manage, and divulge information from underwater archaeological excavations: It is difficult to express the extent of our gratitude to our sponsors: The Luso-American Foundation and Dr.

The Symposium would not have been as interesting Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption the collaboration of the two discussants, Dr. Roger Smith and Dr. Brad Lowen, both good friends and old time collaborators with the Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Nautical Archaeology Program.

We want to thank them for their words of encouragement and their input. Abstract Continuing an old tradition of the Nautical Archaeology Program, a group of students has started a coordinated study of issues pertaining to the history of Iberian Seafaring during the Age of Sail. The vessels of the Spanish and the Portuguese were perhaps the best of their time in Europe, and it is difficult to imagine the modern world Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption them.

This is a compilation of their papers. In they formalized their mission under the name EXPLADISC — an acronym for Exploration and Discovery — and developed a series of projects aimed at the study of the technology of the 15th and 16th centuries that led the Europeans into the New World.

The entire issue of INA Newsletter The Exploration and Discovery group carried out a number of extremely interesting projects during the s Bass However, these ground breaking experiments, which included the geological study of the evolution of the coastline in the two areas surveyed, set the standards for future work. Figure — The Exploration and Discovery group.

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From left to right: Smith, and KC Smith Photo: These are still today considered Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption two earliest European vessels found in the New World.

Measuring around 20 m overall, these ships may have been caravels or small naos, and showed scantlings similar to those found in the Playa Damas shipwreck, another early Spanish shipwreck recently visited by the Institute of Nautical Archaeology near Nombre de Dios, in Panama Castro b and Castro and Fitzgerald Some of the students from the Exploration and Discovery group continued their work on Iberian ships through the s and 90s Keith and Smith ; Lamb et al.

Smith excavated another early Spanish ship, believed to have been lost inat Emanuel Point, and Thomas Oertling wrote a series of seminal articles on the definition of Iberian ships as a Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption subtype Oertling c,; Smith; Smith et al. Iberian Ships The study of Iberian ships as seafaring technology remains a small field of research in spite of the obvious importance that these vessels had in setting the age of the European expansion overseas.

Very few studies about Iberian ships have been Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption out, and even less published, in spite of the discovery of more than 70 suspected Iberian shipwrecks worldwide, all built and sailed between and Tables 1 through 5. There is no doubt that the particular way in which the vessels under analysis were built derives from a older Mediterranean shipbuilding tradition, probably brought to the Iberian Peninsula by Italian — perhaps mainly Genoese — shipwrights.

What makes it interesting is the fact that it incorporates construction features that have been observed in North Atlantic craft. The process by which the ships of the Portuguese and the Spanish evolved and adopted structural characteristics from both the northern and Mediterranean worlds is unknown to us, and to make things more complicated, a number of shipwrecks — admittedly still small — have been found with similar characteristics, but clearly originating from outside the Iberian Peninsula Table 6.

Canada Yes Surveyed 6 Basque galleon 2 16th c.

Canada Yes Surveyed 6 Basque galleon 3 16th c. Canada Yes Surveyed 6 Saona Site 1 16th c. Azores Part of the Surveyed 1 bottom Angra D 16th c.? Cuba Extensive Excavated 1 Green Cabin ? England Extensive Excavated 1 Baleal 1 16th c. Portugal Unknown Looted 12 Arade 1 Late 16th c. Madagascar Unknown Salvaged 24 S.

Boxer, Charles Ralph The Portuguese...

Galleon of Duarte Malaysia Unknown Looted? India None Excavated 17 Sto. England Part of a mast step Surveyed 22 Calvi 1 Late 16th c. France Unknown Surveyed 1 1 Castro a: Edward van der Porten. It is therefore difficult to precisely define what constructional features characterize an Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption ship from the 16th and early 17th centuries.

These ships were the end result of a long process that entailed many decisions regarding the financing, conceptualization, construction and outfitting. They were all different and the standards within which they were built changed constantly in time.

State built ships were among the most expensive and sophisticated artifacts constructed during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, and Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption drive for improvement seems to have been a constant incentive for change.

The history of the three centuries of European expansion is hard to imagine without these complex machines, which carried — as J.

Unfortunately, ships also carried diseases, wars, and oppression. What is worth stressing here is that given the importance of the technical characteristics of the vessels of this period, it is almost incomprehensible how little we know about them.

The excavation of one of four 16th-century Basque galleons found in Red Bay, Canada, greatly advanced our understanding of this type of ship. Paradoxically, this excavation brought more questions than answers to the discussion: Can Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption define a regional type for the entire Iberian Peninsula in the 16th or 17th centuries?

How different were these ships from the English, Danish, or French ocean-going ships of their time? How much did Portuguese and Spanish shipwrights change the original Mediterranean model through time? How different were the Spanish and the Portuguese ships? On the way back I missed an airplane connection, and spent a Boxeador declarado homosexual adoption afternoon with J. Richard Steffy, in an airport somewhere, discussing how little was and still is known about this subject.

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