In Freudian psychologypsychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theorythat human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido sexual energy that develops in five stages.
Sigmund Freud proposed that if the child experienced sexual frustration in relation to any psychosexual developmental stage, he or she would experience anxiety that would persist into adulthood as a neurosisa functional mental disorder. Sigmund Freud — observed that during the Five freudian stages of psychosexual development stages of early childhood development, the child's behavior is oriented towards certain parts of his or her body, e.
He argued that adult neurosis functional mental disorder often is rooted in childhood sexuality, and consequently suggested that neurotic adult behaviors are manifestations of childhood sexual fantasy and desire. That is because human beings are born " polymorphous perverse ", infants can derive sexual pleasure from any part of their bodies, and that socialization directs the instinctual libidinal drives into adult heterosexuality.
To avoid anxiety, the child becomes fixatedpreoccupied with the psychologic themes related to the erogenous zone in question, which persist into adulthood, and underlie the personality and psychopathology of the man or woman, as neurosishysteriapersonality disorderset cetera.
Electra complex in Five freudian stages of psychosexual development ; according to Carl Jung. The first stage of Five freudian stages of psychosexual development development is the oral stagespanning from birth until the age of one year, wherein the infant's mouth is the focus of libidinal gratification derived from the pleasure of feeding at the mother's breast, and from the oral exploration of his or her environment, i.
The id dominates, because neither the ego nor the super ego is yet fully developed, and, since the infant has no personality identityevery action is based upon the pleasure principle. Nonetheless, the infantile ego is forming during the oral stage; two factors contribute to its formation: Weaning is the key experience in the infant's oral stage of psychosexual development, his or her first feeling of loss consequent to losing the physical intimacy of feeding at mother's breast.
Yet, weaning increases the infant's self-awareness that he or she does not control the environment, and thus learns of delayed gratificationwhich leads to the formation of the capacities for independence awareness of the limits of the self and trust behaviors leading to gratification.
Yet, thwarting of the oral-stage — too much or too little gratification of desire — might lead to an oral-stage fixationcharacterised by passivity, gullibility, immaturity, unrealistic optimismwhich is manifested in a manipulative personality consequent to ego malformation.
In the case of too much gratification, the child does not learn that he or she does not control the environment, and that gratification is not always immediate, thereby forming an immature personality. In the case of too little gratification, "Five freudian stages of psychosexual development" infant might become passive upon learning that gratification is not forthcoming, despite having produced the gratifying behavior.
The second stage of psychosexual development is the anal stagespanning from the age of eighteen months to three years, wherein the infant's erogenous zone changes from the mouth the upper digestive tract to the anus the lower digestive tractwhile the ego formation continues. Toilet training is the child's key anal-stage experience, occurring at about the age of two years, and results in conflict between the id demanding immediate gratification and the ego demanding delayed gratification in eliminating bodily wastes, and handling related activities e.
The style of parenting influences the resolution of the id—ego conflict, which can be either gradual and psychologically uneventful, or which can be sudden and psychologically traumatic. The ideal resolution of the id—ego conflict is in the child's adjusting to moderate parental demands that teach Five freudian stages of psychosexual development value and importance of physical cleanliness and environmental order, thus producing a self-controlled adult.
Yet, if the parents make immoderate demands of the child, by over-emphasizing toilet training, it might lead to the development of a compulsive personalitya person too concerned with neatness Five freudian stages of psychosexual development order.
If the child obeys the id, and the parents yield, he or she might develop a self-indulgent personality characterized by personal slovenliness and environmental disorder. If the parents respond to that, the child must comply, but might develop a weak sense of selfbecause it was the parents' will, and not the child's ego, which controlled the toilet training. The third stage of psychosexual development is the phallic stagespanning the ages of three to six years, wherein the child's genitalia are his or her primary erogenous zone.
It is in this third infantile development stage that children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents; they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring each other and their genitals, and so learn the physical sexual differences between "male" and "female" and the gender differences between "boy" and "girl".
In the phallic stage, a boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complexhis son—father competition for possession of mother.
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Oedipuswho unwittingly killed his father, Laiusand sexually possessed his mother, Jocasta.
Analogously, in the phallic stage, a girl's decisive psychosexual experience is the Electra complexher daughter—mother competition for psychosexual possession of father.
This psychological complex derives from the 5th-century BC Greek mythologic character Electrawho plotted matricidal revenge with Orestesher brother, against Clytemnestratheir mother, and Aegisthustheir stepfather, for their murder of Agamemnontheir father, cf.