Families headed by lesbian, gays and bisexuais: The aim of the present study was to describe the scientific literature on families
Bisexual psicologia by lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals, through a
Bisexual psicologia review of national and international studies published between and The following databases were searched: After the Bisexual psicologia of inclusion and exclusion criteria, articles were selected for review.
Most studies were international, empirical, cross-sectional and quantitative, with a focus on lesbian parenthood. Content analysis of the articles revealed two major categories with a series of subcategories each: This review provides an updated and extensive discussion of the research into families headed by sexual minorities.
Major findings are summarized and critically evaluated, and suggestions for future research are described. Family, parenting, marriage, homosexuality, same sex. The scientific study of families headed by lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB 1 individuals has flourished in recent years.
This area of research became especially prominent in the s, although at that time, most studies focused on the mental health of lesbian mothers and the potential negative effect of parental homosexuality on offspring psychosexual development Johnson, LGB families still experience discrimination in several contexts, including the health, welfare, education and legal systems Power et al.
The experience of prejudice events, the need to hide or conceal one's sexual orientation, and internalized homophobia are significant sources of stress for sexual minorities Meyer,and often have a negative effect on same-sex couples, decreasing marital satisfaction, intimacy, and individual well-being and mental health Henderson et al. Despite the growing number of studies into "families and homosexuality," and the increase in social and legal debates on the topic, misconceptions regarding LGB families continue to permeate the social milieu.
In light of these observations and the discrimination faced by these individuals, the psychological literature should invest more resources into the study of families headed by LGB individuals, discussing these situations and shedding light on the specific issues faced by these families. The
Bisexual psicologia of the present study was therefore to describe the scientific literature on families constituted by lesbians, gays and bisexuals, through a systematic review of national and international studies published "Bisexual psicologia" and A general picture of the scientific literature on the topic was provided, highlighting both the advances and weaknesses in the literature, as well as significant areas for future research.
Additionally, a comprehensive characterization of the literature on both parental and marital issues was performed, since
Bisexual psicologia couples are themselves a type of family arrangement. The geographic range of this review was Bisexual psicologia significantly larger than that of other similar studies in the literature, most of which are limited to North-American and European studies.
This systematic review aimed to describe the scientific literature on families headed by LGB individuals.
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Selection of keywords for the literature search. Database search and
Bisexual psicologia of results. Abstract screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Extraction of data from selected articles. Data synthesis and interpretation. The following keywords and Boolean operators were used
Bisexual psicologia retrieve articles in Portuguese: To search the English-language literature, the following keywords were used: To
Bisexual psicologia articles in "Bisexual psicologia," the following keyword was used: The literature search was performed in June and July The databases were searched for articles published Bisexual psicologia andso as to identify publications which captured recent changes in legal, juridical, social and academic contexts with regards to family and homosexuality, as well as the increase in the number of publications on the topic observed over the past few years.
The selection of this particular time period was also based on previous reviews of the literature on family and homosexuality, which have offered a comprehensive perspective of the literature on the topic, especially in the context of LGB parenting e. This period was considered
Bisexual psicologia long to identify the major
Bisexual psicologia and findings in this area of research. The following inclusion criteria were applied to the abstracts: All abstracts retrieved were then analyzed, considering the following exclusion criteria: Systematic literature reviews were not included in the analysis since the goal of this study was to describe the scientific literature on LGB families with regards to its goals, methods, themes and results.
However, the reviews were used to situate our findings in the context of the existing literature e. After a preliminary
Bisexual psicologia of the abstracts according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full-text articles were obtained for closer inspection and analyzed by two independent judges - one undergraduate and one graduate student, both members of the research group on same-sex families headed by the first author of this Bisexual psicologia. A relevance test was then performed Azevedo, All excluded articles Bisexual psicologia discussed by the judges, and disagreements were resolved by consensus.
The final set of selected studies was then read in full, and data
Bisexual psicologia extracted and entered into Excel spreadsheets. Data synthesis and interpretation involved two types of analysis.
A quantitative method was first used to describe the profile of the studies retrieved, in terms of their year of publication, nationality of the institutions to which the first authors were affiliated, journals of publication, language, type of study, method, study design, instruments, participant characteristics, and family arrangements studied.
The sub categories were identified
Bisexual psicologia the following method: After the identification of the main thematic categories, data were Bisexual psicologia and discussed in the context of the existing literature in this area of study.
The abstracts were screened, and the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in the exclusion of articles for the following reasons: A total of studies were selected for inclusion, but only were obtained in full text format, even after direct contact with the authors and the use of bibliographic retrieval systems. Nevertheless, the number of articles retrieved represents the vast majority of abstracts selected These articles were then sent to the judges for relevance testing Azevedo, The main reasons for article exclusion at this stage of the process were: As such, the final sample consisted of studies retrieved from the following databases: Quantitative Analysis of Scientific Studies.
Table 1 presents the characteristics of the articles
Bisexual psicologia. Thirty-one articles were published inwhile 31 were published in28 in30 in and 25 in A total of articles were empirical, while 23 were theoretical. Seven of the studies performed in Brazil were theoretical, while eight were empirical and cross-sectional. These findings suggest an increase in the volume of empirical research over recent years. Mixed methods were only used by seven of the articles retrieved.
Most quantitative studies relied on the use of scales, standardized questionnaires, and self-administered interviews. In most cases, data were analyzed using chi-square tests, multivariate and regression analysis. This finding underscores the need for instrument validation in the LGB population, since most of the instruments used in the studies reviewed were developed for heterosexual populations.
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Qualitative studies relied mostly on structured and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis generally involved a content analysis by theme. The sample size of each study ranged from 1 to people. Although 'transgender' was not included as a keyword in our literature search, three studies which had "family and homosexuality" as a main theme included this population in their
Bisexual psicologia Chapman et al. For decades, experts studying human...
The number of studies which focus on the offspring of LGB parents has increased significantly, although such investigations are still quite limited, especially with
Bisexual psicologia to adult offspring. The scientific literature on families headed by LGB individuals addresses two main themes: Most of
Bisexual psicologia studies published in the past five years focus on family arrangements such as adoption and assisted reproduction.
Bisexual psicologia on coparenting Tarnovski, These results reflect the many legal, juridical, and technological changes observed in recent years, all of which have had an impact on the definition and organization of the family unit.
Qualitative Analysis of Scientific Studies. The qualitative analysis of the articles reviewed involved the classification
Bisexual psicologia each study "Bisexual psicologia" on its main theme - parenting or marriage in families headed by LGB individuals - as well as a discussion of its main findings. A critical analysis of the research was also performed, Bisexual psicologia its strengths as well as its weaknesses, and suggesting directions for future work.
Parenting among Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals. The theme of "parenting" contained the following subcategories: Examples of each subcategory are shown in Table 2together with the number of articles in which each theme was discussed. Studies of the expectations, perceptions and the transition to parenting revealed that gay and lesbian couples "Bisexual psicologia" less likely than heterosexual couples to express the desire for parenthood, especially due to legal issues and concerns regarding their children's psychosocial development.
However, they endorsed the value of parenthood as strongly as did heterosexual individuals, and felt equally capable of parenting e. Overall, it
Bisexual psicologia that the main barriers to parenthood for gay and especially lesbian couples are: Nevertheless, lesbian and gay individuals tend to be confident in their ability to overcome legal, economic and social barriers to parenthood, especially when adoption is offered as an alternative to biological parenting Riskind et al.
Additionally, despite their awareness of the challenges associated with transracial adoption, lesbian individuals are more open to this alternative than heterosexual subjects Goldberg, Despite the importance of the transition to parenting in families headed by LGB individuals, very few studies have looked into this phenomenon.
Overall, studies showed that gay and lesbian parents present experience similar issues to heterosexual couples during the transition to parenthood, such
Bisexual psicologia Despite these advances, research into the expectations, perceptions and transition to parenting, especially among gay males, still leaves many questions unanswered, such as: How do individuals experience the transition to parenting when one member of the couple has
Bisexual psicologia had children?
How is the transition to parenthood for sexual minorities shaped by financial and educational resources? How do these families obtain support to cope with the stress associated with this difficult transition? As for the main routes to parenthoodmost studies, especially those published in the late s and early s, discuss planned parenthood through assisted reproduction donor insemination and surrogacy and adoption. This represents a significant change in the family-building process for the LGB population, since earlier studies focused on
Bisexual psicologia experience of parents whose offspring had been conceived in heterosexual relationships which preceded their current homosexual partnership, as highlighted Bisexual psicologia Biblarz and Stacey Families formed by lesbian women through donor insemination have received increasing visibility in the literature in recent Bisexual psicologia, not least due to advances in the sophistication and access to reproductive technology, as well as recent legislative changes e.
Many studies focus on ethical, legal and couple intimacy issues in the context of the decision to use known or unknown donor sperm, and the implications of this decision for the marital relationship and the child's psychosocial development e.
Unknown donors are usually selected out of a wish to avoid the involvement of a third-party in the life of the child and couple, and
Bisexual psicologia fear of custody challenges e. Known donors, on the other hand, may be chosen by women who believe their children deserve access to Bisexual psicologia biological heritage, or who wish to ensure their offspring have at least one male role model e.
Bisexual psicologia suggests that having access to information about a child's donor is important for some parents and has potentially positive consequences for children, as it enhances their sense of identity e. There has also been an increase in studies which investigate how adolescents and young adults raised by lesbian mothers make meaning out of and construct their relationship with known donors e.
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Gay men, either single or married, often choose to form a family through surrogacy e. Studies also reveal that the increasing legalization
Bisexual psicologia same-sex marriage has coincided with an increase in the number of gay men seeking fertility treatments e.
However, the question of how children feel toward their surrogate mothers has not yet been answered by the literature.
Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 40(1), explore the vulnerabilities
Bisexual psicologia strengths of a sample of Puerto Rican gay and bisexual (GB) male youth. Relevance of disclosure of minority sexual orientation on subjective (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB) was analyzed.
Participants were men and. Revista Colombiana de Psicología, 23(2), SCIENTIFIC Health Care Provisions for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Populations.
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